The Manchu imperial clan of the Qing dynasty was also associated with Guan Yu's martial qualities. Cao Cao sent 5,000 elite cavalry to pursue Liu Bei's group and they caught up with them at Changban, where the Battle of Changban broke out. Along with Zhang Fei, he shared a brotherly relationship with Liu Bei and accompanied him on most of his early exploits. Apart from general worship, Guan Yu is also commemorated in China with colossal statues such as the 1,320-tonne sculpture in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province, standing at 58 metres.. When Sun Quan invaded Jing Province, Lü Meng showed understanding towards Mi Fang and successfully induced him into surrendering while Yu Fan also persuaded Shi Ren to give up resistance. The peerage of marquis was divided into three grades during the, 先主為平原相，以羽、飛為別部司馬，分統部曲。先主與二人寢則同牀，恩若兄弟。而稠人廣坐，侍立終日，隨先主周旋，不避艱險。, 紹遣大將軍顏良攻東郡太守劉延於白馬，曹公使張遼及羽為先鋒擊之。羽望見良麾蓋，策馬刺良於萬衆之中，斬其首還，紹諸將莫能當者，遂解白馬圍。曹公即表封羽為漢壽亭侯。, 初，曹公壯羽為人，而察其心神無乆留之意，謂張遼曰：「卿試以情問之。」旣而遼以問羽，羽歎曰：「吾極知曹公待我厚，然吾受劉將軍厚恩，誓以共死，不可背之。吾終不留，吾要當立效以報曹公乃去。」遼以羽言報曹公，曹公義之。, 及羽殺顏良，曹公知其必去，重加賞賜。羽盡封其所賜，拜書告辭，而奔先主於袁軍。左右欲追之，曹公曰：「彼各為其主，勿追也。」, 表卒，曹公定荊州，先主自樊將南渡江，別遣羽乘船數百艘會江陵。曹公追至當陽長阪，先主斜趣漢津，適與羽船相值，共至夏口。, 孫權遣兵佐先主拒曹公，曹公引軍退歸。先主收江南諸郡，乃封拜元勳，以羽為襄陽太守、盪寇將軍，駐江北。, 二十四年，先主為漢中王，拜羽為前將軍，假節鉞。是歲，羽率衆攻曹仁於樊。曹公遣于禁助仁。秋，大霖雨，漢水汎溢，禁所督七軍皆沒。禁降羽，羽又斬將軍龐德。梁郟、陸渾羣盜或遙受羽印號，為之支黨，羽威震華夏。, 曹公議徙許都以避其銳，司馬宣王、蔣濟以為關羽得志，孫權必不願也。可遣人勸權躡其後，許割江南以封權，則樊圍自解。曹公從之。先是，權遣使為子索羽女，羽罵辱其使，不許婚，權大怒。, 又南郡太守麋芳在江陵，將軍傅士仁屯公安，素皆嫌羽自輕己。羽之出軍，芳、仁供給軍資不悉相救。羽言「還當治之」，芳、仁咸懷懼不安。於是權陰誘芳、仁，芳、仁使人迎權。, 羽聞馬超來降，舊非故人，羽書與諸葛亮，問超人才可誰比類。亮知羽護前，乃荅之曰：「孟起兼資文武，雄烈過人，一世之傑，黥、彭之徒，當與益德並驅爭先，猶未及髯之絕倫逸羣也。」, 羽甞為流矢所中，貫其左臂，後創雖愈，每至陰雨，骨常疼痛，醫曰：「矢鏃有毒，毒入于骨，當破臂作創，刮骨去毒，然後此患乃除耳。」羽便伸臂令醫劈之。時羽適請諸將飲食相對，臂血流離，盈於盤器，而羽割炙引酒，言笑自若。, 評曰：關羽、張飛皆稱萬人之敵，為世虎臣。羽報效曹公，飛義釋嚴顏，並有國士之風。然羽剛而自矜，飛暴而無恩，以短取敗，理數之常也。, 曹公與袁紹相拒於官渡，汝南黃巾劉辟等叛曹公應紹。紹遣先主將兵與辟等略許下。關羽亡歸先主。曹公遣曹仁將兵擊先主，先主還紹軍，陰欲離紹，乃說紹南連荊州牧劉表。紹遣先主將本兵復至汝南，與賊龔都等合，衆數千人。 ... 曹公旣破紹，自南擊先主。先主遣麋笁、孫乾與劉表相聞，表自郊迎，以上賔禮待之，益其兵，使屯新野。, 及羽與肅鄰界，數生狐疑，疆埸紛錯，肅常以歡好撫之。備旣定益州，權求長沙、零、桂，備不承旨，權遣呂蒙率衆進取。備聞，自還公安，遣羽爭三郡。, 羽號有三萬人，自擇選銳士五千人，投縣上流十餘里淺瀨，云欲夜涉渡。肅與諸將議。 ... 肅便選千兵益寧，寧乃夜往。羽聞之，住不渡，而結柴營，今遂名此處為關羽瀨。, 賊圍頭有屯，又別屯四冢。晃揚聲當攻圍頭屯，而密攻四冢。羽見四冢欲壞，自將步騎五千出戰，晃擊之，退走，遂追陷與俱入圍，破之，或自投沔水死。, 羽果信之，稍撤兵以赴樊。魏使于禁救樊，羽盡禽禁等，人馬數萬，託以糧乏，擅取湘關米。權聞之，遂行，先遣蒙在前。蒙至尋陽，盡伏其精兵中，使白衣搖櫓，作商賈人服，晝夜兼行，至羽所置江邊屯候，盡收縛之，是故羽不聞知。遂到南郡，士仁、麋芳皆降。, 會權尋至，羽自知孤窮，乃走麥城，西至漳鄉，衆皆委羽而降。權使朱然、潘璋斷其徑路，即父子俱獲，荊州遂定。, 權征關羽，璋與朱然斷羽走道，到臨沮，住夾石。璋部下司馬馬忠禽羽，并羽子平、都督趙累等。, 傅子曰：遼欲白太祖，恐太祖殺羽，不白，非事君之道，乃歎曰：「公，君父也；羽，兄弟耳。」遂白之。太祖曰：「事君不忘其本，天下義士也。度何時能去？」遼曰：「羽受公恩，必立效報公而後去也。」, 臣松之以為曹公知羽不留而心嘉其志，去不遣追以成其義，自非有王霸之度，孰能至於此乎？斯實曹氏之休美。, 蜀記曰：羽與晃宿相愛，遙共語，但說平生，不及軍事。須臾，晃下馬宣令：「得關雲長頭，賞金千斤。」羽驚怖，謂晃曰：「大兄，是何言邪！」晃曰：「此國之事耳。」, 典略曰：羽圍樊，權遣使求助之，勑使莫速進，又遣主簿先致命於羽。羽忿其淹遲，又自已得于禁等，乃罵曰：「狢子敢爾，如使樊城拔，吾不能滅汝邪！」權聞之，知其輕己，偽手書以謝羽，許以自往。, 臣松之以為荊、吳雖外睦，而內相猜防，故權之襲羽，潛師密發。按呂蒙傳云：「伏精兵於之中，使白衣搖櫓，作商賈服。」以此言之，羽不求助於權，權必不語羽當往也。若許相援助，何故匿其形迹乎？, 蜀記曰：權遣將軍擊羽，獲羽及子平。權欲活羽以敵劉、曹，左右曰：「狼子不可養，後必為害。曹公不即除之，自取大患，乃議徙都。今豈可生！」乃斬之。, 臣松之桉吳書：孫權遣將潘璋逆斷羽走路，羽至即斬，且臨沮去江陵二三百里，豈容不時殺羽，方議其生死乎？又云「權欲活羽以敵劉、曹」，此之不然，可以絕智者之口。, 蜀記曰：曹公與劉備圍呂布於下邳，關羽啟公，布使秦宜祿行求救，乞娶其妻，公許之。臨破，又屢啟於公。公疑其有異色，先遣迎看，因自留之，羽心不自安。此與魏氏春秋所說無異也。, 初，羽隨先主從公圍呂布於濮陽，時秦宜祿為布求救於張楊。羽啟公：「妻無子，下城，乞納宜祿妻。」公許之。及至城門，復白。公疑其有色，李本作他。自納之。, 蜀記曰：初，劉備在許，與曹公共獵。獵中，衆散，羽勸備殺公，備不從。及在夏口，飄颻江渚，羽怒曰：「往日獵中，若從羽言，可無今日之困。」備曰：「是時亦為國家惜之耳；若天道輔正，安知此不為福邪！」, 臣松之以為備後與董承等結謀，但事泄不克諧耳，若為國家惜曹公，其如此言何！羽若果有此勸而備不肯從者，將以曹公腹心親戚，寔繁有徒，事不宿構，非造次所行；曹雖可殺，身必不免，故以計而止，何惜之有乎！旣往之事，故託為雅言耳。, sfnp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDubs1938 (, Wang Chien-ch’uan, “Spirit Writing Groups in Modern China (1840–1937): Textual Production, Public Teachings, and Charity.” In, conquer Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Guan Yu's three conditions, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Guan Yu slays Yan Liang and Wen Chou, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Guan Yu crosses five passes and slays six generals, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Guan Yu slays Cai Yang at Gucheng, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Guan Yu releases Cao Cao at Huarong Trail, Sun–Liu territorial dispute#In Romance of the Three Kingdoms, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Hua Tuo heals Guan Yu's arm, List of fictitious stories in Romance of the Three Kingdoms#Events after Guan Yu's death, Three Kingdoms: Resurrection of the Dragon, strategy game series of the same title as the novel, "Monumental 1,320-Ton Sculpture of Chinese War God Watches Over the City", https://www.totalwar.com/games/three-kingdoms, http://www.puzzledragonx.com/en/monster.asp?n=1242, Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guan_Yu&oldid=986935830, People executed by the Han dynasty by decapitation, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 21:15. After Lü Bu's defeat and death, Cao Cao was so curious about why Guan Yu wanted Lady Du so badly and he guessed that she must be very beautiful, so he had her brought to him. These shortcomings resulted in their downfalls. Although seemingly ironic, members of the triads and Heaven and Earth Society worship Guan Yu as well. He eventually decided to tell Cao Cao. He also appears in the History Channel's Anachronism card game. He told Zhang Liao, "Why don't you make use of your friendship with Guan Yu to find out what he wants?" Sun Quan was enraged. If Heaven still helps those who are righteous, it might be possible that this may turn out to be a blessing in disguise! Guan Yu then requested the master to teach him about the dharma. In the 14th century, his spirit was said to have aided Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Ming dynasty, at the Battle of Lake Poyang. Liu Bei evacuated Xinye together with his followers and they headed towards Xiakou, which was guarded by Liu Biao's elder son Liu Qi and independent of Cao Cao's control. [Sanguozhi 16], When Guan Yu was besieging Fancheng, Sun Quan sent a messenger to Guan Yu to offer aid while secretly instructing the messenger to take his time to travel there. Liu Bei fled south and found shelter under Liu Biao, who put him in charge of Xinye at the northern border of Jing Province. In 1402, when Zhu Di launched a coup d'état and successfully deposed his nephew, the Jianwen Emperor, Zhu Di claimed that he was blessed by the spirit of Guan Yu. Cao Cao turned back and attacked Runan after scoring a decisive victory over Yuan Shao at Guandu, and he defeated Liu Bei in Runan. Through generations of story telling, culminating in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, his deeds and moral qualities have been given immense emphasis, making Guan Yu one of East Asia's most popular paradigms of loyalty and righteousness. During the Yuan dynasty, Emperor Wenzong changed Guan Yu's title to "Prince of Xianling Yiyong Wu'an Yingji" (顯靈義勇武安英濟王). [Sanguozhi 5][Sanguozhi others 3], Later that year, Yuan Shao sent his general Yan Liang to lead an army to attack Cao Cao's garrison at Boma (白馬; near present-day Hua County, Henan), which was defended by Liu Yan (劉延). Supposedly, Guan Yu's weapon was a guan dao named Green Dragon Crescent Blade, which resembled a podao, glaive, or naginata and was said to weigh 82 catties (about 49.2 kg or 108.4674 lbs). Cao Cao heeded their suggestion. Guan Yu sealed up all the gifts he received from Cao Cao, wrote a farewell letter, and headed towards Yuan Shao's territory to find Liu Bei. This title was expanded to "Guan the Holy Great Deity; God of War Manifesting Benevolence, Bravery and Prestige; Protector of the Country and Defender of the People; Proud and Honest Supporter of Peace and Reconciliation; Promoter of Morality, Loyalty and Righteousness" (仁勇威顯護國保民精誠綏靖翊贊宣德忠義神武關聖大帝), a total of 24 Chinese characters, by the mid-19th century. the Temple of the Deity of War), or Temple of Kwan Tai, built in 1852, is a typical example of the small shrines erected to Guan Yu in the United States. [Sanguozhi zhu 16], In 1719, the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty awarded the hereditary title "Wujing Boshi" (五經博士; "Professor of the Five Classics") to Guan Yu's descendants living in Luoyang. Yan Liang's men could not stop him. With Yan Liang's death, the siege on Boma was lifted. In the early Ming dynasty, the 42nd Celestial Master, Zhang Zhengchang (張正常), recorded the incident in his book Lineage of the Han Celestial Masters (漢天師世家), the first Taoist classic to affirm the legend. On Cao Cao's recommendation, Emperor Xian awarded Guan Yu the peerage of "Marquis[i] of Hanshou Village" (漢壽亭侯). [Sanguozhi 17][Sanguozhi others 13][Sanguozhi others 14], The Shu Ji mentioned that Sun Quan initially wanted to keep Guan Yu alive in the hope of using Guan Yu to help him counter Liu Bei and Cao Cao.
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